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Archive for the ‘Nobel’ Category

Daftar Para Peraih Nobel Perdamaian

11/02/2010 Tinggalkan komentar

Daftar Para Peraih Nobel Perdamaian

2009 Barrack Obama
2008 Martti Ahtisaari
2007 Al Gore, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
2006 Muhammad Yunus dan Grameen Bank
2005 Mohamed ElBaradei dan IAEA
2004 Wangari Maathai
2003 Shirin Ebadi
2002 Jimmy Carter
2001 PBB, Kofi Annan
2000 Kim Dae-jung
1999 M�decins Sans Fronti�res
1998 John Hume, David Trimble
1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines, Jody Williams
1996 Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo, Jos� Ramos-Horta
1995 Joseph Rotblat, Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
1994 Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres, Yitzhak Rabin
1993 Nelson Mandela, F.W. de Klerk
1992 Rigoberta Mench� Tum
1991 Aung San Suu Kyi
1990 Mikhail Gorbachev
1989 Dalai Lama XIV
1988 United Nations Peacekeeping Forces
1987 �scar Arias S�nchez
1986 Elie Wiesel
1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War
1984 Desmond Tutu
1983 Lech Walesa
1982 Alva Myrdal, Alfonso Garc�a Robles
1981 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
1980 Adolfo P�rez Esquivel
1979 Bunda Teresa
1978 Anwar al-Sadat, Menachem Begin
1977 Amnesty International
1976 Betty Williams, Mairead Corrigan
1975 Andrei Sakharov
1974 Se�n MacBride, Eisaku Sato
1973 Henry Kissinger, Le Duc Tho
1971 Willy Brandt
1970 Norman Borlaug
1969 International Labour Organization
1968 Ren� Cassin
1965 United Nations Children’s Fund
1964 Martin Luther King
1963 International Committee of the Red Cross, League of Red Cross Societies
1962 Linus Pauling
1961 Dag Hammarskj�ld
1960 Albert Lutuli
1959 Philip Noel-Baker
1958 Georges Pire
1957 Lester Bowles Pearson
1954 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
1953 George C. Marshall
1952 Albert Schweitzer
1951 L�on Jouhaux
1950 Ralph Bunche
1949 Lord Boyd Orr
1947 Friends Service Council, American Friends Service Committee
1946 Emily Greene Balch, John R. Mott
1945 Cordell Hull
1944 International Committee of the Red Cross
1938 Kantor Internasional Nansen untuk Pengungsi
1937 Robert Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood
1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas
1935 Carl von Ossietzky
1934 Arthur Henderson
1933 Sir Norman Angell
1931 Jane Addams, Nicholas Murray Butler
1930 Nathan S�derblom
1929 Frank B. Kellogg
1927 Ferdinand Buisson, Ludwig Quidde
1926 Aristide Briand, Gustav Stresemann
1925 Sir Austen Chamberlain, Charles G. Dawes
1922 Fridtjof Nansen
1921 Hjalmar Branting, Christian Lous Lange
1920 L�on Bourgeois
1919 Woodrow Wilson
1917 International Committee of the Red Cross
1913 Henri La Fontaine
1912 Elihu Root
1911 Tobias Asser, Alfred Fried
1910 Biro Perdamaian Internasional Abadi
1909 Auguste Beernaert, Paul Henri d’Estournelles de Constant
1908 Klas Pontus Arnoldson, Fredrik Bajer
1907 Ernesto Teodoro Moneta, Louis Renault
1906 Theodore Roosevelt
1905 Bertha von Suttner
1904 Lembaga Hukum Internasional
1903 Randal Cremer
1902 �lie Ducommun, Albert Gobat
1901 Henry Dunant, Fr�d�ric Passy

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Komite Nobel Norwegia di Oslo

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Daftar Para Peraih Nobel Kimia

11/02/2010 Tinggalkan komentar

Daftar Para Peraih Nobel Kimia
2009 Venki Ramakrishnan – Thomas A. Steitz – Ada E. Yonath
2008 Osamu Shimomura – Martin Chalfie – Roger Yonchien Tsien
2007 Gerhard Ertl
2006 Roger David Kornberg (59) Amerika
2005 Robert Howard Grubbs – Richard Royce Schrock – Yves Chauvin
2004 Aaron Ciechanover – Avram Hershko – Irwin Rose
2003 Peter Agre – Roderick MacKinnon
2002 John B Fenn – Koichi Tanaka – Kurt WiKthrich
2001 William S Knowles – Ryoji Noyori – K Barry Sharpless
2000 Alan Heeger – Alan G MacDiarmid – Hideki Shirakawa
1999 Ahmed Zewail
1998 Walter Kohn – John Pople
1997 Paul D Boyer – John E Walker – Jens C Skou
1996 Robert F Curl – Richard E Smalley – Sir Harold W Kroto
1995 Paul Crutzen – Mario Molin – F Sherwood Rowland
1994 George A Olah
1993 Kary B Mullis – Michael Smith
1992 Rudolph A Marcus
1991 Richard E Ernst
1990 Elias James Corey
1989 Thomas E Ernst
1988 Johann Diesenhoffer – Robert Hubber – Hartmut Michel
1987 Donald J Cram – Charles J Pedersemn – Jean Marie Lehn
1986 Dudley H – Yuan Lee – John VC polangi
1985 Prof Herbert A Houpman – Prof Jerome Karle
1984 R Bruce Merrifield
1983 He’nry Tanbe
1982 Aaron Klug
1981 Kenichi Fakul – Roald Hoffmann
1980 Paul Berg – Walter Gilbert – Frederick Sanger
1979 Herber C Brown – George Wittog
1978 Peter Mitchell
1977
1976 William N Lipscomb
1975 John Conforth – Vladimir Prelog
1974 Paul J Flory
1973 Emit Otto Fischer – Geofrey Wilkinson
1972 Christian B anfinsen – Standford Moore – Willianm H Stein
1971 Gerhard Herzberg
1970 Luis F Leloir
1969 Derek Barton – Odd Hassel
1968 Lars Onsager
1967 Manfred Eigen – Ronald G W Norrish – George Porter
1966 Robert S Mulliken
1965 Robert B Wood ward
1964 Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin
1963 Karl Ziegler – Giulio Natta
1962 Max F Perutz – John C Kendrew
1961 Melvin Calvin
1960 Willard F Libby
1959 Jaroslav Heyrovsky
1958 Frederick Sanger
1957 Lord Todd
1956 Sir Cyril Hinshelwood – Nikolay Semenov
1955 Vincent du Vigneaud
1954 Linus Pauling
1953 Hermann Staudinger
1952 Archer J P Martin – Richard L M Synge
1951 Edwin M McMillan – Glenn T Seaborg
1950 Otto Diels – Kurt Alder
1949 William F Giauque
1948 Arne Tiselius
1947 Sir Robert Robinson
1946 James B Summer – John H Northrop – Wendell M Stanley
1945 Artturi Virtanen
1944 Otto Hahn
1943 George de Havesy
1942
1941
1940
1939 Adolf Butenandt – Leopold Ruzicka
1938 Richard Kuhn
1937 Norman Haworth – Paul Karrer
1936 Peter Debye
1935 Frederic Joliot – Irene Joliot Curie
1934 Harorld C Urey
1933
1932 Irving Langmuir
1931 Carl Bosch – Friedrich Bergius
1930 Hans Fischer
1929 Arthur harden – Hans von Euler Chelpin
1928 Adolf Windaus
1927 Heinrich Wieland
1926 The Svedberg
1925 Richard Zsigmondy
1924
1923 Fritz Pregl
1922 Francis W Aston
1921 Frederick Soddy
1920 Walther Nernst
1919
1918 Fritz Haber
1917
1916
1915 Richard Willstretter
1914 Theodore W Richards
1913 Alfred Werner
1912 Victor Grignard – Paul Sabatier
1911 Marie Curie
1910 Otto Wallach
1909 Wilhelm Ostwald
1908 Ernest Rutherford
1907 Eduard Buchner
1906 Henri Moissan
1905 Adolf von Baeyer
1904 Sir William Ramsay
1903 Svante Arrhenius
1902 Emil Fischer
1901 Jocobus H van t Hoff

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Komite Nobel Swedia di Stockholm

Daftar Para Peraih Nobel Kedokteran

11/02/2010 Tinggalkan komentar

Daftar Para Peraih Nobel Kedokteran
2009 Carol W. Greider, Elizabeth Blackburn, Jack W. Szostak
2008 Harald zur Hausen, Francoise Barre-Sinoussi, Luc Montagnier
2007 Mario Capecchi, Martin Evans, Oliver Smithies
2006 Andrew Z. Fire, Craig C. Mello
2005 Barry J. Marshall, J. Robin Warren
2004 Richard Axel, Linda B. Buck
2003 Paul C. Lauterbur, Peter Mansfield
2002 Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz, John E. Sulston
2001 Leland H. Hartwell, Tim Hunt, Sir Paul Nurse
2000 Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard, Eric R. Kandel
1999 Günter Blobel
1998 Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro, Ferid Murad
1997 Stanley B. Prusiner
1996 Peter C. Doherty, Rolf M. Zinkernagel
1995 Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Eric F. Wieschaus
1994 Alfred G. Gilman, Martin Rodbell
1993 Richard J. Roberts, Phillip A. Sharp
1992 Edmond H. Fischer, Edwin G. Krebs
1991 Erwin Neher, Bert Sakmann
1990 Joseph E. Murray, E. Donnall Thomas
1989 J. Michael Bishop, Harold E. Varmus
1988 James W. Black, Gertrude B. Elion, George H. Hitchings
1987 Susumu Tonegawa
1986 Stanley Cohen, Rita Levi-Montalcini
1985 Michael S. Brown, Joseph L. Goldstein
1984 Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. Köhler, César Milstein
1983 Barbara McClintock
1982 Sune K. Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelsson, John R. Vane
1981 Roger W. Sperry, David H. Hubel, Torsten N. Wiesel
1980 Baruj Benacerraf, Jean Dausset, George D. Snell
1979 Allan M. Cormack, Godfrey N. Hounsfield
1978 Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans, Hamilton O. Smith
1977 Roger Guillemin, Andrew V. Schally, Rosalyn Yalow
1976 Baruch S. Blumberg, D. Carleton Gajdusek
1975 David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco, Howard M. Temin
1974 Albert Claude, Christian de Duve, George E. Palade
1973 Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz, Nikolaas Tinbergen
1972 Gerald M. Edelman, Rodney R. Porter
1971 Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.
1970 Sir Bernard Katz, Ulf von Euler, Julius Axelrod
1969 Max Ludwig Henning Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey, Salvador E. Luria
1968 Robert W. Holley, H. Gobind Khorana, Marshall W. Nirenberg
1967 Ragnar Granit, Haldan K. Hartline, George Wald
1966 Peyton Rous, Charles B. Huggins
1965 François Jacob, André Lwoff, Jacques Monod
1964 Konrad Bloch, Feodor Lynen
1963 Sir John Eccles, Alan L. Hodgkin, Andrew Huxley
1962 Francis Crick, James Watson, Maurice Wilkins
1961 Georg von Békésy
1960 Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet, Peter Medawar
1959 Severo Ochoa, Arthur Kornberg
1958 George Beadle, Edward Tatum, Joshua Lederberg
1957 Daniel Bovet
1956 André F. Cournand, Werner Forssmann, Dickinson W. Richards
1955 Hugo Theorell
1954 John F. Enders, Thomas H. Weller, Frederick C. Robbins
1953 Hans Krebs, Fritz Lipmann
1952 Selman A. Waksman
1951 Max Theiler
1950 Edward C. Kendall, Tadeus Reichstein, Philip S. Hench
1949 Walter Hess, António Egas Moniz
1948 Paul Müller
1947 Carl Cori, Gerty Cori, Bernardo Houssay
1946 Hermann J. Muller
1945 Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst B. Chain, Sir Howard Florey
1944 Joseph Erlanger, Herbert S. Gasser
1943 Henrik Dam, Edward A. Doisy
1939 Gerhard Domagk
1938 Corneille Heymans
1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi
1936 Sir Henry Dale, Otto Loewi
1935 Hans Spemann
1934 George H. Whipple, George R. Minot, William P. Murphy
1933 Thomas H. Morgan
1932 Sir Charles Sherrington, Edgar Adrian
1931 Otto Warburg
1930 Karl Landsteiner
1929 Christiaan Eijkman, Sir Frederick Hopkins
1928 Charles Nicolle
1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg
1926 Johannes Fibiger
1924 Willem Einthoven
1923 Frederick G. Banting, John James Richard Macleod
1922 Archibald Vivian Hill, Otto Meyerhof
1920 August Krogh
1919 Jules Bordet
1914 Robert Bárány
1913 Charles R. Richet
1912 Alexis Carrel
1911 Allvar Gullstrand
1910 Albrecht Kossel
1909 Theodor Kocher
1908 Ilya Mechnikov, Paul Ehrlich
1907 Alphonse Laveran
1906 Camillo Golgi, Santiago Ramón y Cajal
1905 Robert Koch
1904 Ivan Pavlov
1903 Niels Ryberg Finsen
1902 Ronald Ross
1901 Emil von Behring

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Komite Nobel Swedia di Stockholm

Daftar Para Peraih Nobel Sastra

11/02/2010 1 komentar

Daftar Para Peraih Nobel Sastra

2009 Herta M�ller
2008 Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clezio
2007 Doris Lessing
2006 Orhan Pamuk
2005 Harold Pinter
2004 Elfriede Jelinek
2003 J.M. Coetzee
2002 Imre Kert�sz
2001 V.S. Naipaul
2000 Gao Xingjian
1999 G�nter Grass
1998 Jos� Saramago
1997 Dario Fo
1996 Wislawa Szymborska
1995 Seamus Heaney
1994 Kenzaburo Oe
1993 Toni Morrison
1992 Derek Walcott
1991 Nadine Gordimer
1990 Octavio Paz
1989 Camilo Jos� Cela
1988 Naguib Mahfouz
1987 Joseph Brodsky
1986 Wole Soyinka
1985 Claude Simon
1984 Jaroslav Seifert
1983 William Golding
1982 Gabriel Garc�a M�rquez
1981 Elias Canetti
1980 Czeslaw Milosz
1979 Odysseus Elytis
1978 Isaac Bashevis Singer
1977 Vicente Aleixandre
1976 Saul Bellow
1975 Eugenio Montale
1974 Eyvind Johnson, Harry Martinson
1973 Patrick Victor Martindale White
1972 Heinrich B�ll
1971 Pablo Neruda
1970 Alexander Solzhenitsyn
1969 Samuel Beckett
1968 Yasunari Kawabata
1967 Miguel �ngel Asturias
1966 Samuel Agnon, Nelly Sachs
1965 Mikhail Sholokhov
1964 Jean-Paul Sartre
1963 Giorgos Seferis
1962 John Steinbeck
1961 Ivo Andric
1960 Saint-John Perse
1959 Salvatore Quasimodo
1958 Boris Pasternak
1957 Albert Camus
1956 Juan Ram�n Jim�nez
1955 Halld�r Laxness
1954 Ernest Hemingway
1953 Winston Churchill
1952 Fran�ois Mauriac
1951 P�r Lagerkvist
1950 Bertrand Russell
1949 William Faulkner
1948 T.S. Eliot
1947 Andr� Gide
1946 Hermann Hesse
1945 Gabriela Mistral
1944 Johannes V. Jensen
1939 Frans Eemil Sillanp��
1938 Pearl Buck
1937 Roger Martin du Gard
1936 Eugene O’Neill
1934 Luigi Pirandello
1933 Ivan Bunin
1932 John Galsworthy
1931 Erik Axel Karlfeldt
1930 Sinclair Lewis
1929 Thomas Mann
1928 Sigrid Undset
1927 Henri Bergson
1926 Grazia Deledda
1925 George Bernard Shaw
1924 Wladyslaw Reymont
1923 William Butler Yeats
1922 Jacinto Benavente
1921 Anatole France
1920 Knut Hamsun
1919 Carl Spitteler
1917 Karl Gjellerup, Henrik Pontoppidan
1916 Verner von Heidenstam
1915 Romain Rolland
1913 Rabindranath Tagore
1912 Gerhart Hauptmann
1911 Maurice Maeterlinck
1910 Paul Heyse
1909 Selma Lagerl�f
1908 Rudolf Eucken
1907 Rudyard Kipling
1906 Giosu� Carducci
1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz
1904 Fr�d�ric Mistral, Jos� Echegaray
1903 Bj�rnstjerne Bj�rnson
1902 Theodor Mommsen
1901 Sully Prudhomme

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Komite Nobel Swedia di Stockholm

Daftar Para Peraih Nobel Ekonomi

11/02/2010 9 komentar

Daftar Para Peraih Nobel Ekonomi

2008 Paul Krugman
2007 Leonid Hurwicz, Eric S. Maskin, Roger B. Myerson
2006 Edmund S. Phelps
2005 Robert J. Aumann, Thomas C. Schelling
2004 Finn E. Kydland, Edward C. Prescott
2003 Robert F. Engle III, Clive W. J. Granger
2002 Daniel Kahneman, Vernon L. Smith
2001 George A. Akerlof, A. Michael Spence, Joseph E. Stiglitz
2000 James J. Heckman, Daniel L. McFadden
1999 Robert A. Mundell
1998 Amartya Sen
1997 Robert C. Merton, Myron S. Scholes
1996 James A. Mirrlees, William Vickrey
1995 Robert E. Lucas Jr.
1994 John C. Harsanyi, John F. Nash Jr., Reinhard Selten
1993 Robert W. Fogel, Douglass C. North
1992 Gary S. Becker
1991 Ronald H. Coase
1990 Harry M. Markowitz, Merton H. Miller, William F. Sharpe
1989 Trygve Haavelmo
1988 Maurice Allais
1987 Robert M. Solow
1986 James M. Buchanan Jr.
1985 Franco Modigliani
1984 John Richard Nicholas Stone
1983 Gerard Debreu
1982 George J. Stigler
1981 James Tobin
1980 Lawrence R. Klein
1979 Theodore W. Schultz, Sir Arthur Lewis
1978 Herbert A. Simon
1977 Bertil Ohlin, James E. Meade
1976 Milton Friedman
1975 Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich, Tjalling C. Koopmans
1974 Gunnar Myrdal, Friedrich August von Hayek
1973 Wassily Leontief
1972 John Richard Hicks, Kenneth J. Arrow
1971 Simon Kuznets
1970 Paul A. Samuelson
1969 Ragnar Frisch, Jan Tinbergen

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Penghargaan Sveriges Riksbank dalam Ilmu Ekonomi

Daftar Para Peraih Nobel Fisika

11/02/2010 Tinggalkan komentar

Daftar Para Peraih Nobel Fisika
2009 Charles K. Kao – Willard Boyle – George E. Smith
2008 Makoto Kobayashi – Toshihide Maskawa – Yoichiro Nambu
2007 Albert Fert – Peter Grünberg
2006 John C Mather (60) – George F Smoot (61) Amerika
2005 John L. Hall – Theodor W. Hänsch
2004 David J gross (1941) – H David Politzer (1949) – Frank Wilczek (1951) Amerika
2003 Alexei A Abrikosov – Vitaly L Ginzburg – Anthony J Leggett
2002 Raymond Davis Jr (1914) Amerika – Masatoshi Koshiba (1926) Japan – Riccardo Giacconi (1931) Italy
2001 Eric A Cornel – Wolfgang Ketterle – Carl E Wieman
2000 Zhores I Alferov – Herbert Kroemer – Jack S Kilby
1999 Gerardus T Hoof – Martinus J G Veltman
1998 Robert B Laughlin – Horst L Stomer – Daniel C Tsui
1997 Steven Chu – Claude Cohen Tannoudji – William D Phillips
1996 David M Lee – Douglas D Osheroff – Robert C Richardson
1995 Martin L Perl – Frederick Reines – David Lee – Douglas D Osheroff – Robert C Richardson
1994 Dr Clifford G Shull – Dr Bertram Brockhouse
1993 Joseph Taylor – Russel Hulse Amerika
1992 George Charpark dari Prancis
1991 Piere Giles de Gennes Prancis
1990 Richard E Taylor – Jerome I Freiedman – Henry W Kendall
1989 Wolfgang Paul – Norman F Ramsey – Hans G Dehmelt
1988 Leon M Lederman – Melvin Schwarlz – Jack Sleinberger
1987 K Alex Muller – J Georg Bednorz
1986 Ernest Ruska – Gerd Binning – Heinrich
1985 Prof Klaus Von Klitzing
1984 Carlo Rubbia – Simon Van Der Merr
1983 Subrahmayan Shandrasekhar – William A Fowler
1982 Kennet G Wilson dari Amerika
1981 Nicolass Boembergen – Arthur Sclawlow – Kai M Sieghahn
1980 James W Cronindan Val L Fitch
1979 Steyen Weinberg – Seldon L Giashow – Abdus Salam
1978 Pyotr Kapitsa – Arno Penzias – Robert Wilson
1977 John H Van Vleck – Phillip W Anderon – Nevil F Moot
1976 Burton Richter – Samuel CC Iing
1975 James Reinwater – Ben Mottelson – Aage Bohr
1974 Martin Ryle – Anthoni Hewish
1973 Ivan Giaever – Leo Esaki – Brian D Josephson
1972 John Bardean – Leon N Cooper – John R Schrieffer
1971 Dennis Gabor dari Inggris
1970 Louis Neel – Hannes Alfven
1969 Murray Gell Mann
1968 Luis Avarez
1967 Hans Bethe
1966 Alfred Kastler
1965 Sin Itiro Tomonaga – Julian Schwinger – Richard P Feynman
1964 Charles H Townes – Nicolay G Basov – Aleksandr M Prokhorov
1963 Eugene Wigner – Maria Goeppert Mayer – J Hans D Jensen
1962 Lev Landau
1961 Robert Hofstadter – Rudolf Mossbauer
1960 Donald A Glaser
1959 Emilio Segre – Owen Chamberlain
1958 Pavel A Cherenkov – Ilbeja M Frank – Igor Y Tamm
1957 Chen Ning Yang – Tsung Dao Lee
1956 William B Shockley – John Bardeen – Walter H Brattain
1955 Willis E Lamb – Polykarp Kusch
1954 Max Born – Wather Bothe
1953 Frits Zernike
1952 Felix Bloch – E M Purcell
1951 John Cockcroft – Ernest T S Walton
1950 Cecil Powel
1949 Hideki Yukawa
1948 Patrick M S Blackett
1947 Edward V Appleton
1946 Percy W Bridgman
1945 Wolfgang Pauli
1944 Isidor Isaac Rabi
1943 Otto Stern
1942
1941
1940
1939 Ernest Lawrence
1938 Enrico Fermi
1937 Clinton Davisson – George Paget Thomson
1936 Victor F Hess – Carl D Anderson
1935 James Chadwick
1934
1933 Erwin Schrodinger – Paul A M Dirac
1932 Werner Heisenberg
1931
1930 Venkata Raman
1929 Louis de Broglie
1928 Owen Willans Richardson
1927 Arthur H Compton – C T R Wilson
1926 Jean Baptiste Perrin
1925 James Franck – Gustav Hertz
1924 Manne Siegbahn
1923 Robert A Millikan
1922 Niels Bohr
1921 Albert Einstein
1920 Charles Edouard Guillaume
1919 Johannes Stark
1918 Max Planck
1917 Charles Glover Barkla
1916
1915 William Bragg
1914 Max von Laue
1913 Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
1912 Gustaf Dalton
1911 Wilhelm Wien
1910 Johannes Diderik van Der Waals
1909 Guglielmo Marconi – Ferdinand Braun
1908 Gabriel Lippmann
1907 Albert A Michelson
1906 J J Thomson
1905 Philipp Lenard
1904 Lord Rayleigh
1903 Henri Becquerel – Pierre Curie – Marie Curie
1902 Hendrik A Lorenz – Pieter Zeeman
1901 Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen